Tayub, The Mystical Dimension Of Javanese Women
Tayub or tayuban is a traditional art of Java, especially Central Java and East Java. Tayub is a term used by Javanese people in a dance. This art is very popular among the Javanese community because it looks attractive, dynamic, expressive and aesthetic. Tayub dance is a dance that made women as the dominant element. By using the typical Javanese clothes first, such as the use of tempo Jarit (long cloth for clothing subordinates) and scarves tied dileher, the female dancers dance with Tayub so weak supply to entertain and engage the audience dancing abilities. The crowd here is mostly males.
The days of the solicitation of the women dancers Tayub is symbolized by the placement of scarves at the neck of the male audience. The men who had been tied with seledang on his neck could not refuse the dancers. For his services, then the dancers will earn money Tayub/sawer. The more the sawer is given, then the dancer Tayub the longer berjogetnya. They continued to dance with the music accompaniment one unit of a Javanese gamelan percussion, kenong, gong suwukan, kempol, trumpets, percussion and the angklung. In addition, the dancers usually also Tayub poems and songs or rhymes, poems such as Java gurindam containing advice-advice, such advice was wise to build the household well.
History recorded, artistry Tayub first appeared among the public, Blora, Central Java. This art became the entertainment community Relief that in fact most are farmers. The farming community who are likely to have traditional patterns of life and thought, in this context is more fond of local art-modern art rather than the traditional urban. However, if Tayub is the result of art folk art? This question, at least we will deliver on the theory developed by Clifford Geertz.
If we follow the social category that was conceived by Clifford Geertz in his book “The Religion Of Java”, then this can be classified as art-the art of the priyayi. The priyayi here are those that have the lineage of the Royal family of the Royal Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Java and Surakarta. It is not a secret in the arts that are considered sufficiently representative to represent the overall Java community is the art that is produced by the Royal family. Meanwhile, the art that was born from the womb of the alit, small people are not representative enough so that they are more often dimarjinalkan art. That is, art that is produced by small people often don’t get recognition, particularly from the Royal family.
In line with the above in mind, the more we contemplate the Kuntowijoyo art that was born from the womb of the priyayi as a legitimacy of Royal power. In this context, according to the author’s interpretation, the arts can be classified into two forms. First, the artistry that has a pattern. In this category, art that was born from the womb of the priyayi terpola and structured more as compared to the artistry of the procession. Second, the arts are not patterned. In this context, folk art is deemed to have no clear pattern. This is reflected from language and symbols that are used the culture of some Royal family. Regardless of whether the art of Tayub is also a form of legitimacy from real nobility, Tayub remains the one a esthetically viable art claimed to be in the context of art. As such this art has indeed been a prima donna among the people of Java, especially suburban folk.
Although unfortunate, however, is the emergence of a negative stereotype of most of Indonesia’s people always attached padagenre this art, Tayub. The art of making the women as the dominant element is still considered to be a disability for the social structure of the community’s culture of Indonesia his Patriarch is very strong. In this context, women in society had always been placed on the Patriarch of the inferior, while the younger in a more superior.
This is the negative stereotype that renders artistry Tayub increasingly marginalized in the life of the community of Java today. If not, the essence of the art of Tayub, the other side has lost the current fade time. In other words, the art that was originally functioned as an entertainment that tastefully aesthetically with the values adiluhung culture has been turned into erotic arts function only serves as a mere lust pemuas. Featuring side-specific side, for example, sensitive side in women, such as “sorry” the chest in women somewhat open. Then, we were often see this dance is no longer showing its essence. Syair Syair-initially contains sage advice turned into songs that are now negative.
Whereas, in the study of etymology, Tayub means “styled ben also reflects”, is set to be created in harmony. This meaning is the essence of the art of Tayub should be shown. However, the image is bad or negative stereotype that has been attached on the Tayub seems ingrained in the community life of the joint Indonesia. Tayub for the public at large, only seen from the downside, into a bawdy art, low-quality and bertendensi that erotic. This is the reality that the more Tayub artistry, so that cornering cap archives in the form of the perpetrators, which is Tayub art Tayub dancer (ledhek) and gamelan musicians is not artful artistic activity.
The Mystical Dimension
In General, many Javanese mystical nuanced artistry, one of which is Tayub. Reportedly, the women dancers Tayub using medium or mystical ways, such as the use of pegs as a tool in attracting allure the audience or spectators. Moreover, the audience is the lak. Whether true or not, the fact is, anyway in the art Tayub it save the mystical dimension. The mystical dimension is located at Javanese gamelan unit used as a counterpoint to the dance music Tayub. In the Java community, the creation and care of the unit the gamelan has always been a ritual disakralkan. For example, the mystical dimension has been represented by the tradition of the Sekaten in the Palace. In, two sets of upara gamelan Sekaten (Kyai Kanjeng Nagawilaga and Kyai Guntur Madu Kanjeng) became a symbol of the sacred ceremony she did it.
The mystical dimension on the arts Tayub, ultimately delivering us on an understanding that art is more accurately described as folk art than the art Palace. Magical and mystical symbols that exist in this art is the characteristic of the culture of the community, fringe abangan are not strong religiusitasnya culture. Such a notion, implicitly means that art is indeed unacceptable and thrive in society at large. This means that this art can only grow in a limited locus. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the art is not worth mentioning as an artistic entity. Because, however, according to Kuntowijoyo, which is the work of art named or traditions born of a particular group.
In the meantime, Ignas Kleden defines art as a work of art containing elements of entertainment as well as loaded will value and norm in society. So, when referring to the thought, as long as this art Ignas retains its essence which is closely linked to the values and norms of the Javanese people, certainly very worthy Tayub been claimed as an art.
In addition, Tayub can also be described as the art form of Javanese women’s resistance. At least, through the art of Tayub, the dancers could Tayub for a moment apart from snare social culture Patriarch in Javanese. With the wages received, female dancer personifies the personal Tayub more independent compared to women in General that Java just asks for money from the man (her husband). Not only that, Tayub is in fact can also be a place to socialize in the midst of the community. The proximity of the dancers with the audiensnya has removed the gaps. They seemed to be bound in an artistic emotion. Thus, the question is, what is the range of values can still survive? Perhaps, the only way waktulah that can answer it. Nonetheless, we should still strive to maintain and preserve the art of dance Tayub as one of the nation’s cultural treasures.
Jogjakarta, feb 2th 2013